简介：Peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheter-related infections are a major predisposing factor to PD-related peritonitis (1–3). The primary objective of preventing and treating catheter-related infections is to prevent peritonitis.
Recommendations on the prevention and treatment of catheter-related infections were published previously together with recommendations on PD peritonitis under the auspices of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis (ISPD) in 1983 and revised in 1989, 1993, 1996, 2000, 2005, and 2010 (4–9). The present recommendations, however, focus on catheter-related infections, while peritonitis will be covered in a separate guideline.
These recommendations are evidence-based where such evidence exists. The bibliography is not intended to be comprehensive. When there are many similar reports on the same area, the committee prefers to refer to the more recent publications. In general, these recommendations follow the Grades of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system for classification of the level of evidence and grade of recommendations in clinical guideline reports (10). Within each recommendation, the strength of recommendation is indicated as Level 1 (We recommend), Level2 (We suggest), or Not Graded, and the quality of the supporting evidence is shown as A (high quality), B (moderate quality), C (low quality), or D (very low quality). The recommendations are not meant to be implemented in every situation indiscriminately. Each PD unit should examine its own pattern of infection, causative organisms, and sensitivities and adapt the protocols according to local conditions as necessary. Although many of the general principles presented here could be applied to pediatric patients, we focus on catheter-related infections in adult patients. Clinicians who take care of pediatric PD patients should refer to the latest consensus guideline in this area for detailed treatment regimen and dosage (11).